Where in the brain is intelligence?

From autopsies of famous Russians to a new model based on imaging studies, scientists keep looking

by Tom Valeo

April 4, 2008

For years, Russian scientists harvested the brains of exceptionally smart people, trying to locate the source of their intelligence. After V.I. Lenin died in 1924, for example, the Russians invited the great German neuroanatomist Oskar Vogt to try to locate the “source of genius” in the leader of the Russian revolution. Vogt cut Lenin’s brain into more than 1,100 slices, but he found nothing exceptional except unusually large pyramidal cells.

The last brain that the Russians studied in this way was that of Andrei Sakharov, the nuclear physicist and human rights activist who died in 1989. From the dozens of brains they studied, the researchers made many observations about brain size, the density of neurons and the number of convolutions of the cortex, but their findings revealed next to nothing about human intelligence.

Today, scientists around the world continue to search for the physiological basis of human intelligence, but they also focus on genetic variation, which appears to determine about half of a brain’s cognitive ability on average, as measured by standard IQ tests. And by using modern scanning techniques, they are gaining much more detailed insights into the structure and function of the brain than the Russians could achieve through dissection.

The emerging consensus is that intelligence depends not just of the efficiency or power of various brain regions, but also on the strength of the connections that link them.

Richard J. Haier - Thumbnail
Richard J. Haier 
“These early attempts to find the physiological basis of intelligence were limited by a lack of modern technology,” said Richard J. Haier, a professor in the School of Medicine at the University of California, Irvine, who uses brain imaging to study higher cognitive processes. “With the advent of modern medical imaging it became possible to look for more subtle differences than you might find with gross anatomy.”

A model of human intelligence

By reviewing 37 neuroimaging studies, Haier and Rex E. Jung, a researcher at the Mind Research Network in Albuquerque, New Mexico, have developed a provocative theory that attributes human intelligence to a circuit that links the frontal lobes, which are involved in planning, organization and other highly developed human abilities, with the parietal region farther back in the brain, which integrates information from the eyes, ears and other senses. They believe this Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory, or P-FIT, best accounts for the evidence that intelligence depends on several brain regions tightly linked by axon tracks that form superhighways of information.

Richard J. Haier - Thumbnail
Rex E. Jung 
Prior to the P-FIT model, many neuroscientists considered the frontal lobes to be the seat of human intelligence. However, while damage to the frontal lobes may affect motivation, foresight, modulation of emotion and other higher functions, it seldom degrades IQ.

“The frontal lobes are important to intelligence according to almost every imaging study, but so are other areas,” said Haier. “That’s why we think intelligence involves a network that includes the frontal lobes, but is not exclusively based in the frontal lobes."

The P-FIT model, according to Haier and Jung, also explains how the speed of transmissions between brain regions could make a crucial difference.

“Several studies have measured speed of neural processing, and they typically find a modest correlation with IQ tests,” Haier said. “The technology of measuring neural conduction velocity is a little primitive, but it is our belief that EEG studies that measure brain changes show that smarter people process information faster.”

Genes also contribute to intelligence, according to studies of identical twins, and paradoxically that contribution increases with age.

“In children, the contribution from genes is less than 50 percent,” Haier said, referring to identical twins. “In older people in their 60s, 70s and 80s, the number is more like 80 percent. As you grow older the heritability of intelligence increases. That means environmental influences become less significant over time, and genetic influences become more pronounced.”

The genetic contribution to intelligence undoubtedly involves many genes, each making a small contribution, but modern techniques for scanning the genome can compare billions DNA base pairs from many subjects very quickly. This will enable the DNA of very intelligent people to be compared with DNA taken from people of average intelligence, which could reveal genes that contribute to IQ.

Improving intelligence?

What will a better understanding of the physiology of intelligence bring us? Haier expects to see ways to measure intelligence more precisely.

“One of the things I can envision is a person getting an MRI scan from which predictions are made about their future academic achievement,” he said. “This would be more predictive than SATs.”

He also believes the biochemistry of intelligence will point to new ways of enhancing the brain’s performance.

“Some drugs used to treat Alzheimer’s are learning and memory drugs,” he said. “What happens if you can improve learning and memory in people who don’t have Alzheimer’s?”

Rex Jung predicts that a better understanding will create ways of enhancing intelligence through education and other techniques.

“Genes are not destiny,” he said. “Being able to look at genetic predispositions will provide incredible opportunities to work within the environment to increase intelligence and to work with individuals to maximize their intellectual potential.”

Fear of intelligence research

Understanding the physical basis of intelligence will require much more research, but both Haier and Jung believe such research is gaining momentum.

“But there’s a fear about this type of research, just as there is with research into the biological basis of violence and aggression,” Haier said. “There’s a fear of how that information would be used.”

In a recent paper in Brain on “Famous Russian Brains,” Alla A. Vein and Marion L.C. Maat-Schieman reviewed some of the findings made by Russian scientists who studied the brains of highly accomplished people. They found, for example, that the brain of Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev was an amazing 30 percent larger than average, while an exceedingly detailed study of the brain of Dmitrii Mendeleev, the creator of the periodic table, revealed highly developed frontal and parietal lobes on the left side.

Such findings may seem crude and even quaint by today’s standards, but Jung believes those scientists were on the right track, and he would like to take a look himself at some of the specimens they collected.

“You could image them and get detailed measurements,” he said. “I’d be very interested in cortical thickness in the frontal and parietal regions in the left hemisphere, which the Russians identified as having increased gyrification. You could do some very interesting experiments even today on those brains.”


The environmental factors in healthy development of human intelligence

Dr. Mohanad A. Ali

3/20/2015 1:07:18 PM

The environmental factors in healthy development of human intelligence Dr. Mohanad A. Ali Ninavah College of Medicine / University of Ninavah Iraq, Mosul In this supposition I focused on the environmental effects on intelligence because of their significant and critical role in developing and improving one's cognitive and intellectual abilities. They can be classified into: 1- Pre-creation factors. The trait of the off springs including intellectual abilities are determined by the genes inherited from the parents, so any hereditary abnormal gene affecting brain development can strongly deteriorate cognitive skills and abilities, for instance, the inborn error of metabolism involving impaired metabolism of the essential amino acid Phenylalanine (Phenylketonuria) can affect brain development and function producing mentally under-developed person. Other abnormalities during pregnancy or early in childhood such as hepatic encephalopathy or hyperbilirubinemia due to Rh incompatibility can cause abnormal development of the brain that in turn causes abnormal mentality, intellectual disability or sometimes mental retardation. 2- The mother's internal environment. This can be considered as the first actual environment that affects the development of the fetal brain. Therefore, any toxic condition to the developing brain during pregnancy can has its drawback effects on the cognitive function of the brain. 3- The external environmental effects. These can produce smart or blade person depending on whether positively or negatively affecting the brain. They might be thrown into. a. The family (parents). Highly educated parents might make use of their knowledge of the neurophysiological bases of human intelligence to conserve as many neurons as possible in the brain of the newly born baby by early use of these neurons even before birth (the greater the neuronal pools, the more efficient the analytical and integrative abilities of the brain to the incoming information into the brain). b. Parental education and occupation. Education on its own is believed to be the major factor that influences intellectual development in every modern nation or civilized society. There is a significant relationship between parental level of education and the availability of educational stimulating facilities at home such as internet and personal computers and the academic performance of their children. If the parents are mentally sound due to having good jobs that bring in good financial strength, this will afford the parents to adequately meet the financial responsibilities on their children's education, moreover, it would go a long way to aid their children's education and academic achievements, as they would be able to guide, monitor and encourage them. c. The socioeconomic status (SES) of the family. It measures one's overall status and position in the society. There is a significant relationship between the SES of the family and the academic achievement of their children. It influences neural development, particularly of the systems that sub-serve language and executive functions, individual skills, knowledge and experiences from childhood through adult life. This is especially so with pre-natal factors, parent-child interaction and cognitive stimulation in the home environment, especially if it begins early in childhood. Growing up in families of low SES is associated with substantially worse health and impaired psychological well-being and cognitive development. Fortunately, at least some of these effects if not most of them, are reversible. Such a mechanism understanding will enable the design of more powerful intervention to prevent and remediate the effects of low childhood SES. d. Nutrition. Low SES families have less access to healthy foods and more likely to experience food insufficiency and nutritional deficiency. e. Stress and exposure to violence. It can affect child-parents relationships. Low SES families experience increased stress related to social ranks, difficulties in providing for family needs and living in dangerous neighborhoods. This can cause chronic stress and affect child development, impaired attention and working memory. f. Parents drugs. Drug use in pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. Any drug that acts during embryonic or fetal development to produce alteration of form or function is known as teratogen. Alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, methamphetamine and marijuana and others can result in attention disorders, poor memory, verbal and reasoning disabilities, especially with alcohol that can result in a variety of embryonic developmental abnormalities which vary depending on the severity, duration and frequency of exposure to alcohol during gestation (dose-related). Prenatal exposure to alcohol can potentially impact normal development at almost any point in pregnancy from embryonic through fetal development. The fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe collection of alcohol-related birth deficits including growth retardation and deficiencies of the central nervous system. Anti-epileptic drugs can be associated with neurodevelopmental impairment characterized by poor levels of ability for skills such as IQ, language, memory, cognition, motor and social skills, which can be transient or continuous into adulthood. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that these potential risks are identified, minimized and communicated to women at the child bearing period.

The biological environmental hypothesis of human intelligence

Dr Mohanad A. Ali

4/17/2014 9:41:16 AM

Dr. Mohanad A. Ali The Biological-Environmental Hypothesis of Human Intelligence The subject of intelligence is a challenging matter, simply because of the lack of trustful methods to study human intelligence. Nevertheless, we should try our best to make inroads on this subject in conjunction with the efforts of other scholars so that this topic can be discussed intelligently. Herein, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to professors Haier and Jung, as well as to all scientists who can shed light on the mystery of human intelligence, so that we can all get a better understanding of this subject. Faced with such a big challenge, our ultimate goal is to be able to improve intelligence so that it helps develop the well- being of mankind all over the world. In order to be able to discuss the subject of intelligence in a scientific and systematic manner, let me start with its definition. Definition: From a neurophysiological point of view, human intelligence is considered as a function (output) of many widespread areas of the brain working in concert with each other to produce what characterizes human beings, that is to say cognitive reasoning. These areas include, in order of importance, the language comprehension area in the posterior part of the superior temporal lobe (Wernicke's area), the parietal lobe, the frontal lobe, the cerebral cortex, as well as the thalamus. The integrative function of all of these areas together can produce a human’s ability to solve social, mathematical, and philosophical problems, and to prognosticate and plan for the future. In this sense intelligence can be considered as acquired skill that requires many activities to be conducted by the involved areas (in intelligence) of the brain. This skill might be grown up or fades with time depending on how frequent and to which extent these activities are conducted. Brain structures are involved in intelligence: Many widespread neuronal pools in the brain participate in the production of intelligence, as they are interconnected by a rich network of nerve fibers to ensure rapidity and fidelity of transmission of nerve signals. These areas are located in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as the thalamus. Brain activities that represent the skeleton of intelligence: 1. Learning: Learning is the first step to be taken on the gateway to intelligence, it represents the corner stone of cognitive thinking. 2. Understanding and comprehension: These are the functions of the most important area of the entire brain regarding language based intelligence the Wernicke’s area. 3. Memory storage: The human brain has a natural tendency to ignore most of the incoming information (more than 99%) and consider it as unimportant and irrelevant, and to store information, especially so, the one that attracts the mind’s attention, to be reused at a future time as an element of intelligence. 4. Data base of the brain: With time, the human brain builds up a very wide data base (memories) that represents the backbone of intelligence. 5. The working memory: The frontal lobe has the ability to keep track of many bits of information simultaneously and to retrieve them instantaneously as they are required, which is so essential for the thinking process and the elaboration of deep and abstract thoughts. 6. Retrieval and read out of stored memories: The thalamus is responsible for the accessing and reading of memories. Therefore, from the preceding discussion it becomes clear that it is not enough to talk about the parieto-frontal integrative function as mentioned by Haier and Jung 2008, and we must not belittle the role of the other previously mentioned areas most importantly the Wernicke's area (the language comprehension area) as well as the cerebral cortex as a whole (the largest memory store house) so as the thalamus. Actually widespread destruction of the Wernicke's area extending into the adjacent association areas (auditory, visual, and somatosensory) in the dominant hemisphere can cause much more harm to the intellect than does destruction of the prefrontal area. The role of genes in intelligence: From the aforementioned discussion, it is quite clear that intelligence is a function of the brain which is unique in all people of all races; meanwhile, all people are equally provided with the elements of intelligence. Therefore, they are potentially intelligent. For these reasons, one can hardly speak of the role of genes in intelligence with the exception of one genetically determined factor, that is to say the number of neurons composing the brain. Basically, this is controlled, at least in part, by the Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) gene. This gene signals proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells as well as the critical balance between these two events. In this sense, it becomes possible to determine how many nerve cells actually make up the brain. Environmental effects on intelligence: No doubt that the environment is considered as another route of gaining knowledge and information. It represents the media to nurture and develop an important element of intelligence known as knowledge. Therefore educated parents, civil, affluent, and high standard societies will nurture and improve most if not all the activities required for bright and brilliant people. The opposite is true, ignorant, and low socioeconomic status societies regresses intellectual abilities. If we consider the human brain as a sophisticated computer, the output of this computer depends entirely on the user, whether a beginner or professional user. Accordingly I suggest a new hypothesis of human intelligence, "THE BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL HYPOTHESIS OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE". This supposition focuses on the biological (built-in in the brain) factors, as well as the environmental factors that are equally important to the biological factors.