Previous Grantees

GABA and Glutamate Impact of Genetic Vulnerability to Alcoholism

by Graeme F. Mason, Ph.D.

Investigators will use MRI imaging to determine if there is a direct link between a variant in a specific gene that may produce an increased susceptibility to alcohol dependence and two neurotransmitters that may be involved in addiction.Research has...
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Illuminating the Function of Hypothalamic Feeding Circuits

by Gero Miesenböck, M.D.

Yale researchers will use cellular optical imaging techniques in mice to study how the “feeding circuit,” located in the brain’s hypothalamus, balances appetite and satiety, and how this balance can be altered and lead to obesity.Research suggests th...
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Visualizing the Mechanisms of Integrin-Mediated Lymphocyte Costimulation

by Stephen C. Bunnell, Ph.D.

Researchers will use cellular imaging to identify interactions of immune system proteins that are implicated in the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.  The findings could lead to the development of drugs that selectively block these...
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Visualization of Protein Ubiquitination During T Cell Development In Vivo

by Deyu Fang, Ph.D.

Researchers will use cellular imaging in mice to see how two proteins, which are essential for the early stages of immune T cell development, then degrade before they inhibit the T cells’ further growth and maturation.  Understanding this normal degr...
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Embryonic Neural Progenitor Dynamics in Mouse Models of Down Syndrome

by Tarik Haydar, Ph.D.

Researchers aim to use cellular imaging to determine how Down’s syndrome affects stem cells in the developing brain in a new animal model, and then determine how altered stem cell development relates to the behavioral abnormalities that the animals e...
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The Role of Endothelin in the Pathogenesis of Cerebral Malaria in a Mouse Model

by Herbert Tanowitz, M.D.

Investigators will study animals infected with malaria to try to learn how this infectious disease sometimes produces damage,called "cerebral malaria,"  to the brain The investigators hypothesize that in some people malaria infection causes their blo...
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Accelerating Brain Tumor Drug Discovery Through Cellular Imaging

by Andrew Kung, M.D., Ph.D.

The investigators will refine their new model for evaluating the ability of experimental treatments to curtail growth of deadly brain tumors called gliomas.  The new treatment evaluation method, if successful, will provide a faster and easier route f...
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Imaging Viral Assembly and Trans-synaptic Transport in the Brain

by Lynn Enquist, Ph.D.

Princeton researchers will image fluorescently labeled viral particles as they pass from one brain neuron to another in the mouse. This will provide information on how viral infection spreads within nervous system.  The study also will demonstrate a ...
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Transcription Factor Activity Imaging in Brain and Brain Tumors

by John Laterra, M.D., Ph.D.

In this project, researchers will modify laboratory techniques so that they can be used to locate and quantify abnormal proteins, called “transcription factors,” that promote brain tumor growth.  The techniques will be adapted for use first in animal...
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Imaging Inflammation in AIS Dementia: PET with [11C] Arachidonic Acid

by Dima Hammoud, M.D.

The investigators will use PET imaging to determine the underlying molecular changes that occur in the brains of people with AIDS who have developed AIDS-associated dementia.  The results could lead to a better understanding of how dementia occurs an...
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Two-photon Imaging as a Platform for the Real-time Evaluation of Human Glial Progenitor Cell Engraftment in the Lysosomal Storage Disorders

by Maiken Nedergaard, M.D., D.M.Sc.

 Researchers will use two-photon cellular imaging in mouse models of two genetically determined “lysosomal storage” diseases, to determine how the diseases lead to accumulation of unprocessed metabolic products from brain cells, resulting in early ch...
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Imaging Protein Dynamics at Synapses

by Bernardo L. Sabatini, M.D., Ph.D.

In the laboratory, Harvard researchers will use two-photon laser microscopy to visualize how activated proteins normally move into and out of brain cell synapses to enable one brain cell to communicate with another.  Then, the investigators will imag...
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Imaging the Development of Ventral Midbrain Nuclei

by Rajeshwar Awatramani, Ph.D.

Northwestern University investigators will use molecular imaging in mice to learn how the brain cells that are destroyed in patients with Parkinson’s disease are initially developed.    This insight may lead to an improved ability to develop stem cel...
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Magnetoencephalography and High-field Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Function and Connectivity in Head Trauma With Post-concussive Syndrome

by Pratik Mukherjee, M.D., Ph.D.

The researchers aim to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of traumatic brain injuries.  They will combine two imaging techniques that they anticipate will enable clinicians to directly visualize both the brain’s functioning and its neuronal connecti...
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Enhancement of Post-Stroke Neural Plasticity with Atomoxetine: A Pilot Study

by Lumy Sawaki, M.D., Ph.D.

Investigators will undertake a small-scale pilot study of the drug atomoxetine in adults undergoing rehabilitation following a stroke.  They will use a technique called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to determine whether the drug, combined w...
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Imaging the Repair Potential of Cortical Neuronal Transplantation In Vivo

by Michael Stryker, Ph.D.

This study will determine the feasibility of using cellular imaging in mice to determine whether embryonic brain cells that are transplanted into the cerebral cortex integrate into neural networks and functionally replace the brain cells that have di...
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Functional Brain Imaging of Emotion-Perception in Late Life Depression

by Sergio Paradiso, M.D., Ph.D.

Investigators will use fMRI imaging in adults to explore the possibility that depression in elderly people that occurs in the absence of feeling sad is associated with small blood vessel disease in brain regions involved in perceiving emotion.  Suici...
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Effect of Genotype on Brain Function and Structure in Schizophrenia

by Jason R. Tregellas, Ph.D.

Colorado researchers will combine MRI imaging with genetic studies to explore the possibility that structural and functional brain deficits in people with schizophrenia are associated with a specific gene.  If so, the research could identify new a ne...
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Mapping Abnormal Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurochemical Circuitry in Schizophrenia with rTMS and MRS

by Lawrence Kegeles, M.D., Ph.D.

Investigators will image patients with schizophrenia to determine whether they have an imbalance in the chemicals that normally regulate levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine and whether this imbalance correlates with cognitive problems, such as me...
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Imaging Second Messenger Systems Using [11C] Rolipram

by Dean F. Wong, M.D., Ph.D.

Researchers will test in healthy human volunteers the safety and utility of a new PET imaging agent intended to be used to assess the effectiveness of various drugs used to treat psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and ...
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Molecular Imaging of Neurotransmitter Receptor Trafficking In Vivo: Regulation by Neuronal Activity

by Jose A. Esteban, Ph.D.

The investigators will use molecular imaging in laboratory animals to gain a better understanding of how brain wiring occurs, and continuously changes, through cognitive activities such as learning and memory.     Neural networks form through brain c...
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Neural Deterioration and Cross-modal Plasticity in the Blind

by Ione Fine, Ph.D.

Using MRI and fMRI in people who are blind at an early age and those who became blind later in life, the researchers will study how visual deprivation affects the visual cortex and how brain plasticity affects the cortex’s responses to non-visual sen...
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In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging of the Retinal Readout by Visual Cortical Networks

by Prakash Kara, Ph.D.

Medical University of South Carolina investigators will undertake cellular imaging in laboratory animals to learn how information is transformed from the eye to the brain through neural circuits that produce vision.  The results are anticipated to en...
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Functional Organization of the Circadian Oscillator

by Satchidananda Panda, Ph.D.

Salk Institute investigators will use molecular imaging in transgenic” mice (containing human cells) to learn how subsets of neurons that comprise the brain’s Master Clock” work to synchronize sleep and wake cycles and numerous other functions, such ...
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Using fMRI to Study Adult Human Visual Cortex Reorganization Following Retinal Injury

by Stelios Smirnakis, M.D., Ph.D.

This study will use fMRI imaging to examine contradictory findings about the nature and extent of reorganization of the visual cortex following retinal injury.Research has not demonstrated conclusive answers to several fundamental questions concernin...
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Hyperscanning of Interpersonal Trust in Autism

by P. Read Montague, Ph.D.

Baylor researchers will use a new imaging technology they have developed to  image simultaneously the brains of highly functioning individuals with autism engaged in social interactions.  This is the first study of its kind and may provide insight in...
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Elucidation of the Relationship of Cerebral White Matter Injury to Cerebral Cortical Disturbance and Their Developmental Consequences in the Premature Newborn

by Janet Soul, M.D., C.M., FCRPC

Researchers will use imaging to test the hypothesis that injury to brain cell axons (communication cables) in premature infants alters the brain cells, resulting in cognitive impairment.Research has found that 70 percent of premature infants weighing...
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In Vivo Quantification of Myelination in Autism and Related Disorders

by Yanming Wang, Ph.D.

This study will determine whether a cellular PET imaging technique in mice can quantify the extent of myelination that occurs during development to insulate brain cell axons and help conduct electrochemical chemicals from one brain cell to another.  ...
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Quantifying Corticospinal Tract Development and Motor Outcome Following Neonatal Brain Injury

by Patrick McQuillen, M.D.

The investigators will combine two types of imaging to determine how congenital heart defects in newborns contribute to their subsequent development of motor problems, such as in walking.Two-thirds of children born with congenital heart defects later...
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Imaging Defects in Dendritic Spine Maturation in Fragile X Mutant Mice

by Carols Portera-Cailliau, M.D., Ph.D.

How do the millions of brain cells establish billions of connections (i.e., synapses) with one another? How do they find and choose suitable partners with which to make synapses in the vastness of the immature brain? Can errors in synapse formation l...
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Functional Imaging of Perceptual Completion in Artificial Scotomas

by Susana Martinez-Conde, Ph.D.

Using fMRI BOLD imaging in normal adults, the researchers will determine how our brains “fill-in” normal blind spots that occur in our vision.  This study will provide baseline information that can be used to explore how filling-in occurs following d...
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Measurement of Molecular Determinants of Body-weight Regulation in the Brain using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

by David Cummings, M.D.

University of Washington researchers will use a modified imaging technique to explore the molecular processes in the brain that are thought to control body weight and the development of obesity.  Using MRS (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) in animals...
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Establishing a Model of T Cell Mediated Autoimmunity in Zebrafish

by Nikolaus S. Trede, M.D., Ph.D.

The researchers will apply a new molecular imaging technique to see if it can help advance efforts to detect, treat, and identify the genetic bases for an autoimmune disease in zebrafish that is similar to autoimmunity in humans.Autoimmune diseases o...
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Roles of the EGF Receptor and Microglia in Glioma Invasion

by Jeffrey E. Segall, Ph.D

Investigators will use molecular imaging to determine whether immune “microglial” cells that reside in the brain interact with deadly brain tumor cells, enhancing the tumor cells’ entry into healthy brain tissues.Deadly brain tumors called “gliomas” ...
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Evaluation of White Matter Fiber Tracts in the Brain and Their Relationship to Recovery of Locomotion During an Acute Exacerbation of Multiple Sclerosis

by Kathleen Zackowski, Ph.D., O.T.R.

Studying patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), researchers will determine whether two types of imaging techniques can quantify the extent of neural damage from acute exacerbations of the disease, and thereby help to predict the extent of recovery.MS...
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Visualization of Protein Interactions in Living Primary Lymphocytes

by Tom Kerppola, Ph.D.

The researchers will use new cellular imaging methods to study how therapeutic agents that either stimulate or suppress immune cells are affected by proteins that regulate immune system responses.Proteins, which are expressed by genes to carry out sp...
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Imaging Dendritic mRNA Transport and Translation in Health and Disease

by Gary Bassell, Ph.D.

Investigators will examine the normal role of a specific protein that is missing in males who have an inherited form of mental retardation in order to determine how this protein deficiency impairs cognitive development.  The findings may lead to new ...
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Study of the Mnemonic Functions of Dopamine Using a Novel Molecular Imaging

by Rajendra Badgaiyan, M.D.

The investigators will use PET with a molecular tracer to see if this approach can reveal the neurochemistry of dopamine transmission that is involved in human memory.The effects of impaired dopamine transmission on cognition in a number of neurologi...
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The Use of fMRI for Detecting Abnormal Neural Synchronization

by Gadi Goelman, Ph.D.

Based on the researchers’ Dana-supported demonstration that a new MRI imaging technique can non-invasively detect asynchronous firing of neurons, the investigators now will determine whether this abnormal firing occurs in patients with Parkinson’s di...
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Molecular Imaging of Neurons in the Brain

by James Olson, M.D., Ph.D.

Researchers will develop “smart contrast agents” that bind to specific brain cells involved in Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, enabling scientists to quantify brain cell loss in patients with these degenerative diseases.  If effective, this tec...
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Effects of Instrumental Music Training on Brain and Cognitive Development in Young Children: A Longitudinal Study

by Ellen Winner, Ph.D.

Boston College researchers will use MRI and fMRI imaging to assess the effects of music training on cognition and investigate whether skills acquired in music training transfer to other cognitive functions, such as mathematical and verbal performance...
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Mechanism of CTLA-4 Inhibition of Antigen-mediated NFkB Signaling in T Cells

by Brian Schaefer, Ph.D.

These investigators will use cellular imaging to define the molecular processes that tumor cells use to block signals that ordinarily stimulate immune T cells to attack the tumor.  The findings could lead to the development of new approaches to thera...
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A Novel Imaging Approach for Early Diagnosis of Parkinson's and Diffuse Lewy Body Diseases

by Georges El Fakhri, Ph.D.

Harvard investigators have refined an imaging technique that can measure two events simultaneously in patients with Parkinson’s disease, Diffuse Lewy Body disease, and Alzheimer’s disease, to see if it can effectively diagnose each disease early.  If...
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MRI Determination of Fast Axonal Transport Rates in Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease

by Robia Pautler, Ph.D.

Baylor researchers will combine MRI with a cellular imaging tracer in mice to see whether progressive accumulation of brain amyloid, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease, is associated with progressively slower movement of electrical signals along nerve...
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PET Imaging of Brain Amyloid Using PIB

by Julie Price, Ph.D.

Pittsburgh researchers seek to validate a new PET imaging tracer called Pittsburgh Compound B (“PIB”) that they have developed to identify brain amyloid deposits that occur well in advance of symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease.  Thereafter, the team wil...
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Imaging Biomarkers for Familial Primary Progressive Aphasia

by Murray Grossman, M.D.

A genetic study may reveal the genetic basis for a language disability, and conversely, for the underlying capacity to develop and understand language.  This is an imaging and genetic study of a subgroup of patients with a type of dementia that only ...
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PET Amyloid Imaging in Nondemented Elderly to Evaluate Alzheimer Risk

by John Morris, M.D.

Three studies would be undertaken to test the hypothesis that brain uptake of the new PET imaging tracer called PIB, by binding to a protein called amyloid, identifies the preclinical (asymptomatic) phase of Alzheimer’s disease.  If the hypothesis is...
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Imaging Protein and Synaptic Vesicle Dynamics in a Zebrafish Presynaptic Terminal

by David Zenisek, Ph.D.

Researchers will learn how disease-related proteins are recruited to brain cell “synapses," the junctions that connect one brain cell to another, and how these proteins are released by one brain cell and taken up by another during synaptic transmissi...
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Imaging Alzheimer-Related Pathological Changes: Immune-Mediated, Therapeutics and Toxicities

by Bradley Hyman, M.D., Ph.D.

This academic research study will examine how the first experimental therapeutic vaccine, designed to reduce brain accumulation of amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease, caused a life-threatening inflammatory response in some of the patients participating i...
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Noninvasive Quantitation of Early Biochemical Changes in Alzheimer's Disease

by Ravinder Reddy, Ph.D.

A form of MRI imaging may provide a non-invasive indirect method to identify and quantify brain amyloid deposits in Alzheimer’s disease.  Investigators at the University of Pennsylvania will try to validate this approach using a “humanized” mouse mod...
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Anatomical and Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia

by Andrew Alexander, Ph.D.

By combining anatomical imaging with electrical recording techniques. scientists will characterize abnormalities in frontal lobe brain connections in patients with schizophrenia.  This newly combined technique may reveal important neural abnormalitie...
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The Neurochemistry and Neurocircuitry of Panic Disorder: PET Imaging of 5-HT1A Receptor Distribution and the Neural Correlates of Panic

by Gregory Sullivan, M.D.

The investigators will use PET imaging to determine whether the onset of panic disorder is associated with abnormal secretion of the neurotransmitter serotonin in specific brain cell circuits.  If so, this improved understanding of panic disorder cou...
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Assessment of Cortical Plasticity in the Visual System Following Macular Degeneration in Adult Humans

by Ehud Zohary, Ph.D.

Researchers expect that this study will determine whether cortical reorganization occurs in adults who develop macular degeneration and, if so, whether the reorganization facilitates improved vision.While cortical reorganization occurs in congenitall...
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Perceptual Learning and Consolidation Studied with Perfusion fMRI

by Geoffrey Aguirre, M.D., Ph.D.

University of Pennsylvania researchers will study what occurs in the awake and sleeping brain while people learn to recognize faces or buildings.  The findings should help to explain the role of sleep in this essential learning function, called visua...
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Reading in the Deaf: Neuroanatomical Underpinnings of Fluent Reading

by Daphne Bavelier, Ph.D.

Rochester investigators will combine behavioral tests with brain imaging to understand how people who are deaf acquire reading skills.  Their research could lead to improvements in methods for helping deaf people increase their capacity to read. Whil...
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The Impact of Cerebral Fat Microemboli on Cognitive Function and Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-Weighted Brain Imaging Following Elective Joint Replacement Surgery in the Elderly

by Sebastian Koch, M.D.

Cognitive decline, such as memory difficulties, may occur in 5-29% of patients after orthopedic surgery.   The reasons for this decline are unknown.  Recently small fat particles have been detected with ultrasound in the brain circulation of patients...
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The Development of Cognitive Function in Tourette Syndrome: fMRI Studies

by Bradley L. Schlaggar, M.D., Ph.D.

Tourette Syndrome is a rare but socially devastating developmental disorder, in which affected children impulsively have inappropriate actions, such as blurting out swear words. Understanding how to treat developmental conditions requires that we gai...
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Alteration of Hippocampal Perfusion as an Early Indicator of Alzheimer's Disease

by Thomas Liu, Ph.D.

While a decade ago diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease primarily helped a patient and family prepare for the patient’s inevitable cognitive deterioration, today early diagnosis allows for use of promising therapeutic approaches to slow cognitive decline. ...
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Developmental Trajectory of Hypoglycemia's Impact on Cognition and the Brain

by Tamara Hershey, Ph.D.

Juvenile (Type I) diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the child’s immune system identifies pancreatic cells as foreign” and attacks them, making them less able to rid the body of excess sugar.  The newest treatment strategy of intensive therap...
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Diffusion Tensor MRI Mapping of How Brain Fiber Tracts Change after Gamma Knife Capsulotomy for Intractable Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

by Benjamin D. Greenberg, M.D., Ph.D.

Investigators will employ imaging techniques to help assess the efficacy of surgery being used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients who have not responded to previous medical therapies.OCD affects about 2% of the population and pr...
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Facilitators of Stroke Recovery

by Gottfried Schlaug, M.D., Ph.D.

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Human Cerebral Metabolism in Ketosis

by Jullie W. Pan, M.D., Ph.D.

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Time-lapse, In Vivo Imaging of Neural Circuit Formation in the Visual System

by Justin Crowley, Ph.D.

Carnegie Mellon scientists will use cellular imaging in laboratory animals to understand how normal brain circuits are formed during development.There are two competing explanations for how brain cells find the right neighbors to connect up with, to ...
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Imaging TGFBETA-Signaling in Synapse Formation and Synaptic Growth

by Brian McCabe, Ph.D.

Researchers will use cellular imaging in the fruit fly and mice to gain a better understanding of the signaling processes that regulate nervous system wiring and how such signaling may go awry in brain diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (...
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Imaging Cell Division, Cell Motility and Small GTPase Activation during Zebrafish Eye Morphogenesis

by Chi-Bin Chien, Ph.D.

Utah investigators will use molecular imaging techniques to view the morphogenesis (structural growth) of the developing eye in zebrafish, to learn how the eye develops normally and how development can go awry in the presence of specific genetic muta...
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Noninvasive Quantitation of Biochemical Changes in the Human Substantia Nigra in Parkinson’s Disease: A Window into Pathogenisis

by Gülin Öz, Ph.D.

Investigators will increase the sensitivity of non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to improve the study of three Parkinson’s disease processes and how various therapies affect each of these.Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a pro...
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Seeing is Believing: Imaging Injured Spinal Axons with Two-Photon Microscopy

by Binhai Zheng, Ph.D.

These researchers will see, in an animal model of spinal cord injury, whether repeated two-photon cellular imaging can accurately identify injured axons that are regenerating.Lack of scientific tools has hampered efforts to understand the molecular e...
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A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled High-Dose Erythropoetin Neuroprotection Trial for Newborns Undergoing Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmmonary Bypass

by Dean B. Andropoulos, M.D.

Foundation funds will support the MRI imaging component of an ongoing controlled clinical study to see if high-dose erythropoietin (EPO) protects against brain injury in infants with congenital heart disease who undergo cardiac bypass surgery.  The o...
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Functional Neuroimaging of Psychopharmacologic Treatment for Autism

by Gabriel S. Dichter, Ph.D.

Researchers will use fMRI imaging in high-functioning adults with autism to explore whether the drug Citalopram reduces their repetitive behaviors by stimulating brain circuits in frontal brain regions. The results may lead to the development of impr...
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Genetic Variation and White Matter Deficits in Schizophrenia

by Phillip R. Szeszko, Ph.D.

This study will use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain’s white matter (the neural communication cables) in people with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers, along with genetic mapping, to test the hypothesis that variation within specific ge...
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Imaging the Development of Cerebral Cortical Radial Units: Implications for Cortical Minicolumn Assembly and Autism

by Song-Hai Shi, Ph.D

Investigators will use two-photon cellular imaging during development in mice with a genetic form of autism to see whether neurons fail to migrate and connect properly in the cerebral cortex.   Co-funding for this study will be provided by Autism Spe...
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The Neural Processes that Lead to Effective Emotion Regulation: Effects of Aging

by Elizabeth A. Kensinger, Ph.D.

This research will use fMRI to examine how changes in the connections between areas of the brain involved in cognition and emotion lead to a more positive rather than negative emotional outlook, and how the direction and strength of those causal conn...
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In Vivo Imaging of Microglia Responses to Blood-brain Barrier Disruption

by Katerina Akassoglou, Ph.D.

The researchers will use two-photon imaging in mice to determine whether blood factors that leak from disrupted blood vessels in the brain and induce immune cells residing in the brain to initiate damaging inflammation.Brain function becomes impaired...
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Dynamic Intravital 2-Photon Imaging of Perivascular T Cell - Antigen Presenting Cell Interaction During Induction of Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

by Alex Y. Huang, M.D., Ph.D.

Using cellular imaging, researchers will examine how immune destruction of central nervous system (CNS) cells is initiated in the animal model of autoimmune Multiple Sclerosis (MS).Immune system functioning is dependent on the spatial and temporal di...
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Non-Invasive Imaging of the Cholinergic System - Distribution and Function

by Rachel Katz-Brull, Ph.D.

By strengthening the signal produced by MRS imaging, the researchers will test in animals a potential new non-invasive imaging technique for diagnosing dementia and monitoring treatment effectiveness. Most treatments designed to delay the onset of de...
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Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Active Demyelinating Disease in Multiple Sclerosis by Targeting Myeloperoxidase

by John W. Chen, M.D., Ph.D.

This study in the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS) will test the ability of a new MRI imaging agent to detect active clinical disease at the earliest stages and monitor changes produced by treatments.  The technique also may lead to the develo...
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Rewiring of the Adult Nervous System after Femtosecond Laser Axotomy

by Aravinthan D.T. Samuel, Ph.D.

Researchers will use a newly developed nonlinear optical imaging technique in the transparent worm C. elegans to better understand how nerve circuits direct their own repair after traumatic injuries to the adult brain or spinal cord.  “Femtosecond la...
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Connectivity Between White and Gray Matter Abnormalities in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Developmental Model of Brain Pathophysiology

by Mani Pavuluri, M.D., Ph.D.

Researchers will use fMRI to pinpoint areas in the brain’s gray matter (nerve cells) involved in childhood bipolar disorder, and use DTI to identify the white matter areas (the cells’ communication cables) that connect these affected gray matter regi...
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Neural Mechanisms of Age-Related Decision-Making: Direct Evidence from Physiology

by Natalie Denburg, Ph.D.

This study will use fMRI and PET imaging to determine whether age-related physiological changes in a part of the prefrontal cortex are associated with deficits in reasoning and decision-making that make some older people unusually vulnerable to falli...
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MR Imaging of Mobile Proteins for Human Brain Tumor Detection

by Jinyuan Zhou, Ph.D.

Researchers will test the ability of a new MRI imaging technique to assess the grade (stage) of brain tumor and to distinguish solid tumor from surrounding edema.   Although MRI imaging is the standard of care for assessing deadly brain tumors called...
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Structural Imaging of the Amblyopic Brain

by Jeffrey L. Goldberg, M.D., Ph.D.

Researchers will use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to determine whether people with the vision disorder amblyopia have structurally or functionally impaired pathways from the eyes to the brain. This could be used to guide future treatment strategies...
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Cerebral Malaria: Immune Cell and Parasite Interactions

by Ute Frevert, D.V.M., Ph.D.

Researchers will develop a mouse model that produces similar disease processes and clinical symptoms as those that occur in human cerebral malaria, to facilitate imaging studies of the interactions between parasite and immune cells of the host.Cerebr...
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Imaging Downstream Intracellular Signals Activated by Axon Guidance Cues in ES-derived Dopaminergic Neurons

by Timothy Gomez, Ph.D.

Researchers will use “fluorescence imaging biosensors” to visualize biochemical signals within neurons derived from embryonic stem cells to test whether these neurons respond appropriately to molecular guidance cues.  The guidance cues to be tested r...
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Magnetic Resonance Molecular Imaging Studies of Dopaminergic Neurotransmission

by Alan P. Jasanoff, Ph.D.

Researchers will develop an MRI imaging sensor to measure real-time signaling by the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is diminished in Parkinson’s disease, as laboratory animals undergo reinforcement (reward) learning.Dopamine signaling pathways in t...
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In Vivo Synaptic Dynamics During Post-Stroke Motor Rehabilitation

by Yi Zuo, Ph.D.

The researchers will use cellular imaging in a mouse model of stroke to understand the structural basis and timing of new synapse formation that underlies motor rehabilitation, and will use this information to guide the design of combined training an...
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Molecular Imaging of Compartmentalized Cerebral Carbohydrate Metabolism by In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of NADH Fluctuations in Cortical Astrocytes and Neurons

by Karl A. Kasischke, M.D.

This laboratory animal study will determine whether two-photon imaging can discern how metabolic processes that create energy for brain cells are altered by degenerative diseases and injuries.   The brain depends on a steady supply of glucose (sugar)...
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Real-time Imaging of the Glutamine-Glutamate Shuttle in Epilepsy

by Richard J. Reimer, M.D.

Researchers will test if their newly developed molecular imaging biosensor, used in combination with electrical measurements, can identify whether excess amounts of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate build up in brain tissue in an animal model...
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Multiphoton Microscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Hypometabloism in Epileptic Tissue

by Michael Levene, Ph.D.

Yale researchers will test the feasibility of using multiphoton fluorescence imaging in animal model tissue of epilepsy to determine whether this technique can reveal how brain metabolism is slowed in this disease and how this process contributes to ...
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Probing Brain Physiology in Early and Acute HIV Infection (AEH) Using Quantitative Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (qfMRI)

by Beau M. Ances, M.D., Ph.D., M.Sc.

Investigators will determine the feasibility of combining two conventional brain imaging techniques in patients with HIV infection to help reveal how early and acute HIV infection affects the brain and how combination anti-retroviral therapies modify...
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Optical Monitoring of Cortical Functions as a Method for Screening of Disease-Linked Genes and Prospective Therapeutic Compounds

by Pavel Osten, M.D., Ph.D.

This research will employ two cellular imaging techniques to develop a new method to identify and quantify changes in glutamate synaptic transmission that are related to developmental and psychiatric disorders in a mouse model and to assess the effec...
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Dual Use of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in both Detection and Delivery of an Oncolytic Virus to Brain Tumors

by Hugo Caldas, Ph.D.

Researchers will use cellular imaging in an animal model of brain tumor to see whether human mesenchymal stem cells—which have been removed from patients’ bone marrow and inserted into the animal—migrate to brain tumor areas to guide surgical removal...
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Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Investigate Mitochondrial Function in Parkinson's Disease

by Claire Henchcliffe, M.D., Ph.D.

This study will determine if a conventional brain imaging technique can identify abnormally low energy metabolism in brain cells in the substantia nigra in patients with early Parkinson’s disease (PD) and accurately assess the effects of a therapy de...
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Early Interactions of Borrelia Burgdorferi with Immune Cells Resident in Skin

by R. Mark Wooten, Ph.D.

Researchers will use multi-photon cellular imaging in a mouse model to determine why immune cells in the skin fail to eliminate the bacterium that causes Lyme disease.Lyme disease can produce debilitating brain encephalitis and meningitis, peripheral...
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Optical Neuro-Imaging of Deaf Children with Cognitive Delays after Cochlear Implantation

by John S Oghalai, M.D.

To develop an objective measure of auditory perception, researchers will use conventional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imaging in deaf children that are learning to hear through a cochlear implant.  This technique has the promise of guiding coch...
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DTI as a Tool to Identify Infants with Krabbe Disease in Need of Urgent Treatment

by Maria L. Escolar, M.D., M.S.

This study will assess the feasibility of using conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain’s white matter in newborns to make treatment decisions concerning those who are at risk for developing the severe and rapidly progressive form of...
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Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cortical Changes and Phantom Limb Pain in Amputees

by Jack W. Tsao, M.D., D.Phil.

The investigators will use conventional brain fMRI imaging in servicemen and women who undergo mirror therapy to reduce phantom limb pain from their amputated leg, to determine how this therapy reduces the pain and remodels cortical organization in t...
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Intranasal Insulin and Memory in Early Alzheimer's Disease

by Jeffrey M. Burns, M.D.

Investigators will test the effects of insulin administered through a nasal spray to enhance memory function in patients with early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and they will use conventional brain functional MRI (fMRI) and Arterial Spin Labeling ...
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Imaging Microtubule Dynamics in Cortical and Hippocampal Dendritic Spines

by Erik W. Dent, Ph.D.

University of Wisconsin investigators will use cellular imaging in laboratory cultures of neurons to explore how regulation of certain neuronal structures may affect brain plasticity,” the development of new neural network connections in the brain.  ...
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Skinner's New Box: Understanding and Exploiting Neural Markers of Motivation to Learn

by Alison Adcock, M.D.

Investigators will perform fMRI analyses of adults engaged in reward-motivated memory tasks to test the hypothesis that learning can be facilitated by activation of the brain’s dopamine-producing nerve cells.The ease with which people learn new infor...
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Three-Dimensional Imaging of Microvascular pO2 During Ischemic Stroke

by Andrew Dunn, Ph.D.

Investigators will use cellular imaging in an animal model of stroke to quantify decreases in brain oxygenation that occur during stroke, and to assess the therapeutic potential of providing oxygen following the stroke to protect nearby brain tissues...
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Metabolic Correlates of Pedunculopontine Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

by Andrew Feigin, M.D.

Investigators will study eight Parkinson’s disease patients who are undergoing treatment with deep brain stimulation of the peduculopontine nucleus and ask if PET (positron emission tomography) imaging can be used to predict which patients benefit fr...
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The Neural Correlates of Error-Processing in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

by Kate Dimond Fitzgerald, M.D.

Investigators will use functional imaging of young patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder to ask if the brain’s error-processing circuits develop abnormally in this disorder.Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and disabling psychiatr...
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Resting State fMRI: A Novel Approach to Understanding Brain Dysfunction in Major Depression

by Michael Greicius, M.D., M.P.H.

Investigators will use a new method of fMRI analysis to study depressed patients undergoing treatment with an antidepressant medication and ask whether resting state network activity can be used to predict which patients will benefit from the medicat...
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In Vivo Imaging of Brain Proteolysis after Cerebral Ischemia

by Zezong Gu, M.D., Ph.D.

Investigators will use a mouse stroke model to develop a new molecular imaging technique for monitoring the activity of enzymes that contribute to blood vessel leakage and nerve cell death following stroke.The devastating effects of stroke on the bra...
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Neural Progenitor Cell Role in Long Term Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prematurely Born Infants

by Mirjana Maletic-Savatic, Ph.D.

Investigators will use H-MRS imaging to determine whether infants born extremely prematurely have an abnormally low density of neural progenitor stem cells in the brain’s hippocampus and whether this low density correlates with infants’ long-term cog...
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Transposon-mediated Gliomagenesis to Investigate Dendritic Cell Trafficking after Immunotherapy in a Tolerized Host

by John R. Ohlfest, Ph.D.

The investigators will use cellular imaging techniques in a new animal model of lethal brain tumor to determine whether increasing the quantities of a specific type of immune cell in the brain is associated with improved therapeutic outcomes.Glioblas...
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Dynamic MRI of Immune Cell Infiltration in Experimental Stroke

by Erik Shapiro, Ph.D.

Yale researchers will characterize the roles of three types of immune cells involved in the inflammatory response to ischemic stroke, using cellular imaging in an animal stroke model.  They then will try to block this immune response to limit damage ...
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Molecular Imaging of Synaptic Signaling in Fragile X Neurons

by Scott H. Soderling, Ph.D.

Investigators will combine molecular imaging with genetics research to determine how a specific gene mutation leads to abnormal brain cell communication in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of mental retardation. Fra...
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Monitoring the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in the Drosophilia Nervous System In Vivo

by J. Paul Taylor, M.D., Ph.D.

These investigators will develop a cellular imaging technique in fruit fly models of three degenerative brain disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, to visualize whether an impaired ability to eliminate mis-folded brain proteins initiates brain ce...
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Neuroimaging Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Treated with Hypothermia

by Elizabeth Wilde, Ph.D.

The investigators will study traumatic brain injury patients using advanced imaging methods that reveal white matter damage and will assess the efficacy of hypothermia in preventing neurological damage in these patients.Traumatic brain injury (TBI) i...
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Carotid Plaque Imaging to Predict Ischemic Stroke

by Max Wintermark, M.D.

This study will employ computer assisted tomography (CT) scanning of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease to see if certain abnormal features of the carotid artery wall can be used to predict stroke risk in these patients. Carotid atheroscle...
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Relating fMRI Signals to Neuronal Activity Using a Novel Optical Imaging Technique in Alert Monkey

by Aniruddha Das, Ph.D.

Investigators will use several imaging and electrical recording techniques to determine whether BOLD fMRI imaging in laboratory monkeys, and in healthy human study participants, measures not only signals from brain cells activated by repeated visual ...
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The Neural Substrates of Emotional Attention and Inhibition Across Adolescence

by Bonnie Nagel, Ph.D.

Oregon Health Sciences University School of Medicine, Bonnie Nagel, Ph.D. (New investigator)  $200,000 payable over three years Imaging the teen brain to understand emotional development and vulnerability to mood disordersBrain regions involved in ...
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Structural and Molecular Neuroplasticity in Migraine

by Alexandre F. DaSilva, DDS, DMedSc

Researchers will use PET and MRI imaging in people who get migraine headaches and in healthy volunteers to identify factors that may be correlated with the severity of migraine attacks.  Migraine is a chronic disorder characterized by sudden attacks ...
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NALP3 Inflammasome Activation by Fibrillar Abeta Peptides and the Role for Alzheimer's Disease

by Eicke Latz, M.D., Ph.D.

Investigators will use molecular FRET imaging in a mouse model of dementia to gain a better understanding of inflammatory and toxic processes involved in Alzheimer’s disease.Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by senile plaques that consist of amylo...
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Directly Testing the Magnocellular Hypothesis of Dyslexia with High-Resolution Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

by Keith A. Schneider, Ph.D.

Researchers will use a new functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique to explore whether people with dyslexia, a learning disability, have a visual processing impairment in a specific brain region that impedes their reading abilities.Dysl...
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Multiphoton Microscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Hypometabolism in Epileptic Tissue

by Michael J. Levene, Ph.D.

Yale researchers will use cellular imaging techniques in brain tissues of epilepsy patients, which have been surgically removed to treat medication-resistant seizures, to determine the cellular cause of slowed brain metabolism in epilepsy.Epilepsy se...
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Biofeedback of Activity in the Supplementary Motor Area to Reduce Tics in Tourette Syndrome

by Michelle Hampson, Ph.D

Current treatments for mental disorders are limited.  Many individuals do not respond well to the available drugs or behavioral therapies.  In addition, those who do respond well to drugs often experience unpleasant side effects.  In more severe case...
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Novel MRI-based Hippocampal Markers for Alzheimer's Disease

by Owen Carmichael, Ph.D.

Investigators will test a new computational method for analyzing MRI images of sub-regions of the brain’s hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease, to determine whether this method can detect signs of the disease prior to cognitive symptoms and whether it ...
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Distinct Roles of Anterior and Posterior Insula Glutamate in Chronic Pain

by Richard E. Harris, Ph.D.

Researchers will use H-MRS imaging in patients with fibromyalgia to determine whether reduction of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the insula (a specific area of the brain) is associated with decreased sensations of pain and related mood...
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Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Structural Plasticity of Central Synapses

by Thomas Biederer, Ph.D.

Investigators will use cellular imaging techniques to examine the changes that occur at the molecular level at the synapse, the junction between two brain cells, when the cells communicate to facilitate learning.  Brain cells communicate with one ano...
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TGF-B-Signaling in Anti-Tumor T Cells in CNS

by Thorsten R. Mempel, Ph.D.

This study will use multiphoton intravital microscopy in a mouse brain tumor model to understand how these tumors evade the immune system.Research indicates that adaptive immune cells, called cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), initially recognize and at...
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Concurrent Structural and Functional Imaging of Retinal Neurons

by Xincheng Yao, Ph.D.

Researchers will develop an optical imaging technique designed to detect cellular signs of vision diseases early, when they can be treated most effectively, and test this approach in animal models.Several serious eye diseases can lead to vision loss ...
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Super-Resolved Imaging of the Functional Microarchitecture within Single, Living Dendrite Spines

by Thomas A. Blanpied, Ph.D.

This study will explore how beta amyloid, a protein heavily implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, may disrupt synaptic communication in the brain.Neurons communicate with one another at the synapse, the junction between them. Brain synapses have two pro...
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Understanding the Mechanism of Action of Lithium and the Pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder with Molecular Imaging of the Serotonin System

by Ramin Parsey, M.D., Ph.D.

Researchers will use PET imaging to determine how lithium acts on the transmitter serotonin to provide therapeutic benefit in patients with bipolar disease.Lithium has been used for more than two decades to treat bipolar disorder, primarily by preven...
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Pathophysiological Mechanisms of PTSD in Soldiers Returning from Afghanistan and Iraq: Neuroimaging and Treatment

by Jack B. Nitschke, Ph.D.

This study will use three types of imaging to identify specific brain alterations that occur in soldiers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to evaluate the effects of treatment on these changed brain structures and functions.Studies of co...
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Advanced Imaging Studies in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

by Keith Josephs, MST, M.D.

This research aims to identify structural brain changes that occur over the course of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and relate explicit brain changes to the onset of specific signs and symptoms of the disease.PSP is a devastating neurodegenera...
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Imaging Neuronal Network Dynamics: Implications for Information Processing and Storage

by Jason Maclean, Ph.D.

Researchers will explore how information is processed and memories are stored at the level of brain circuits—neuronal networks—as viewed through two-photon imaging of mouse brain.Newly developed cellular imaging technologies can reveal actions of ind...
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Seeing Signaling: Tools for Dynamic Imaging of Kinase Activity in the Nervous System

by Matthew B. Dalva, Ph.D.

Researchers will examine the dynamics of intracellular signaling that give rise to the formation of synapses, junctions connecting one brain cell to another to facilitate communication and plasticity.One key component in the development of synapses b...
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Molecular Determinants of [18F] FACBC PET Imaging in Brain Tumors

by Andrew Lassman, M.D.

This study will help to determine the validity and reliability of a new PET imaging tracer for assessing deadly brain tumor progression and the efficacy of anti-tumor agents in killing the tumor or slowing or preventing its growth.Malignant brain tum...
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Imaging Glutamatergic Synapse Hyperactivity in Animal Models of Depression

by Bo Li, Ph.D.

Investigators will use two-photon molecular imaging in a mouse model of depression to develop direct evidence of cellular changes that cause depression and whether pharmaceutical agents can reverse these changes.    Three types of anti-depressants a...
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High Resolution MRI Mapping of CNS Plasticity Following Spinal Cord Injury in Primates

by Li Min Chen, M.D., Ph.D.

Investigators will determine whether leading edge MRI imaging techniques in a non-human primate model of spinal cord injury can be used to predict the extent of subsequent functional recovery.About one-half of all spinal cord injuries result in quadr...
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Early Life Stress Programs Synaptic Development By Regulating a Novel Innate Immune Pathway in the Developing Mammalian Brain

by Arie Kaffman, M.D., Ph.D.

Investigators will use cellular imaging in mice to help identify the molecular events involved in early life stress that may modify complex behaviors, such as anxiety, impulse control and memory, later in life. The animal studies are expected to have...
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The Role of Apical Dendrites in Attention

by Randy Bruno, Ph.D.

Researchers will use two-photon cellular imaging in mice as an initial step in determining whether a specific brain network facilitates attention and, if disordered, fails to do so in human disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (...
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Age-Related Macular Degeneration: the Effect of Training on Visual Performance and Neural Activity

by Kristina Visscher, Ph.D.

Investigators will determine how macular degeneration modifies visual activity in the brain, and how this activity is further modified by training designed to increase the speed of patients’ cognitive processing.  About two million older adults have ...
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Image-Guided Brain Tumor Surgery Using Invisible Near-Infrared Fluorescent Light

by Hak Soo Choi, Ph.D.

Investigators from Harvard, collaborating with scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, will develop new contrast agents for image-guided brain tumor surgery in an animal model of induction glioma. If successful, this research will be immediately ...
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Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Inhibitory Neurotransmission in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

by Isabella Rosso, Ph.D.

Investigators will use an advanced method of spectroscopy imaging they developed to directly measure levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and determine whether low GABA levels correlate...
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T1rho Imaging to Assess Brain Ph Dynamics

by Vincent A. Magnotta, Ph.D.

In this study, investigators will use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) imaging to explore whether panic disorder could result from abnormally low levels of acidity (pH) in the brain.The brain maintains a balance between acidity and alkalinity (w...
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Use of SPECT and Perfusion fMRI to Examine the Role of DAT Genotype in Motivated Smoking Behavior

by Teresa R. Franklin, Ph.D.

Researchers will use a newly developed SPECT imaging technique to explore whether a specific genetic factor helps to explain why some people have an especially hard time quitting smoking.              Annually, about 40 percent of the nation’s 36 mil...
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Gene-therapy Based Contrast Agents for In Vivo Imaging of Neurodegenerative Disease Models

by Glenn Walter, Ph.D.

Researchers will develop and validate a new MRI imaging technique to visualize how neural degeneration actually occurs over time in a single neural circuit in Parkinson’s disease. Then they will use this MRI imaging technique to validate its potentia...
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Imaging Synaptic Specificity at Dendritic Spines

by Adam Carter, Ph.D.

This cellular imaging study in normal mice and in those with Parkinson’s disease will help identify how electrochemical communication between brain cells normally occurs, and how this communication is altered in Parkinson’s disease.Parkinson’s diseas...
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Role of Microglia in Complement-Mediated CNS Synapse Elimination during Development and Disease

by Beth Stevens, Ph.D.

Investigators will use cellular imaging in mice to study how innate immune system processes prune inactive brain synapses during development, and also how they eliminate synapses in neurodegenerative diseases in a mouse model of glaucoma.During devel...
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Functional Imaging of Dendritic Spines In Vivo as Markers of Early Brain Disease Existence

by Prakash Kara, Ph.D.

Using cellular imaging in the mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease and in normal mice,  investigators ultimately plan to determine how synapses (the junction between two brain cells) are normally activated, and the number of synapses that must be lost ...
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